OK, so Fred Smith created his ultra low-cost Ground opco utilizing contractors and non-employees. What is there to stop UPS, or any other large freight carrier, from doing the same thing? UPS could piss-off the IBT and it's own employees and spin-off UPS "Caramel", or "UPS Lite", or whatever else you want to call an imitation of the Ground scam. UPS could sell it's customers higher-priced, but more dependable Brown, OR the customer can choose UPS Caramel, where someone delivers your box from a donkey cart or beat-up old ex FedEx stepvan for far less? Even if UPS couldn't do it because of their union contract, why not have YRC (union) or even some non-union carrier duplicate FedEx Ground? Roadway (now part of YRC) pioneered the concept anyway, but failed to execute on the expansion part of the equation. Gee, how does Fred Smith keep creating these special niche operations that nobody else can duplicate?